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    Helanthium bolivianum (Rusby) Lehtonen & Myllys

    Helanthium bolivianum (Rusby) Lehtonen & Myllys


    Synonym: Alisma bolivianum Rusby

    heterotypic synonym : Echinodorus australis Rataj

    heterotypic synonym : Echinodorus quadricostatus Fassett

    heterotypic synonym : Echinodorus quadricostatus var. magdalenensis (Fassett) Rataj

    heterotypic synonym : Echinodorus quadricostatus var. xinguensis Rataj

    heterotypic synonym : Echinodorus bolivianus (Rusby) Holm-Niels.

    Under natural conditions, Echinodorus bolivianus grows in the wetlands of Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Paraguay and Argentina. The plant has an attractive appearance and very unpretentious, making it very popular among aquarists. It can be cultivated with equal success both in the aquarium and in the air (in a humid greenhouse environment). Due to its easy keeping, it can be recommended for beginner aquarists.Echinodorus bolivianos is a small plant. It produces many whiskers as it grows. Leaves growing under water are on a small petiole, straight, up to 10 cm long and 5-8 mm wide. The leaf plate is light green in color and 3-5 veins are clearly visible on it. In contrast, the plant growing above the water surface is about 25 cm in size. The petiole is up to 20 cm. The leaves are straight, up to 8 cm long and up to 10 mm wide. The coloring of the leaves is green.Bolivian echinodorus often blooms by releasing above-water erect inflorescences. There are no daughter shrubs on the inflorescence. After flowering, the fruit matures in the form of a small triangular nut.Planting in the aquarium plant is desirable in groups in the foreground. Growth rate is high. No less successful results can be achieved if only one bush is planted in the foreground. Under favorable conditions, it will quickly let out lateral branches and cover virtually the entire surface of the ground with them, but here you need to control the growth of plants in time mowing and removing excessive bushes, as they can take places designed for other plants. In some cases, Bolivian Echinodorus can grow to large sizes (up to 30 cm in height), but this occurs only in a rich nutrient soil and bright light.Parameters of water are as follows: temperature 20-30 ° C, hardness dH 2-12 °, pH acidity 6,0-8,0.K illumination are not presented any special requirements. It can be as sand and gravel of different fractions. The plant in a short time adapts to the new place and begins to grow quickly. As it grows, dense thickets are formed, which it is advisable to thin out periodically. If this is not done, the bushes begin to degenerate from lack of nutrients and light.[1]

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Kostiantyn Loboda, Black Water
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Ryszard Kamiński Digital Museum of Uniwersity of Wroclaw (